Chemistry

The Chemistry Department at St. Anthony’s is a dynamic department with a wealth of experience and expertise. We are keen to share this with the students to enable them to reach their potential within Chemistry.

Year 9 Chemistry

Topics studied:

Atomic structure and the periodic table

The periodic table provides chemists with a structured organisation of the known chemical elements from which they can make sense of their physical and chemical properties. The historical development of the periodic table and models of atomic structure provide good examples of how scientific ideas and explanations develop over time as new evidence emerges. The arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table can be explained in terms of atomic structure which provides evidence for the model of a nuclear atom with electrons in energy levels.

Bonding structure, and the properties of matter

Chemists use theories of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials. Analysis of structures shows that atoms can be arranged in a variety of ways, some of which are molecular while others are giant structures. Theories of bonding explain how atoms are held together in these structures. Scientists use this knowledge of structure and bonding to engineer new materials with desirable properties. The properties of these materials may offer new applications in a range of different technologies.

Skills that will be developed:

Working scientifically particularly the development of scientific thinking, experimental skills and strategies, analysis and evaluation and scientific vocabulary, quantities, units, symbols and nomenclature.

Mathematical skills will be developed such as arithmetic and numerical computation, handling data, algebra, graphs, geometry and trigonometry.

The use of apparatus and techniques will be developed through:

  • The development of investigative skills (devising and investigating testable questions, identifying and controlling variables, analysing, interpreting and evaluating data).
  • The development of practical skills such as using specialist equipment to take measurements, handling and manipulating equipment with confidence and fluency and recognising hazards and planning how to minimise risk.

Formal assessments: (at the end of the course):

Paper 1 lasting one hour and forty five minutes. (100 marks)

Paper 2 lasting one hour and forty five minutes. (100 marks)

Exam board and specification:

AQA is the exam board

GCSE Chemistry (8462) is the specification

Extended tasks/Coursework/Controlled Assessment

Eight required practicals assessing the required apparatus and techniques.

Lists of texts:

AQA GCSE Chemistry Student Book by Lawrie Ryan (ISBN-13: 9780198359388)

AQA GCSE Chemistry Student Book by Ann Daniels (ISBN-13: 97800008158767)

AQA GCSE Chemistry Student Book by Richard Grime, Nora Henry (ISBN-13: 9781471851346)

New Grade 9-1 GCSE Chemistry for AQA: Student Book with Online Edition (CATB42)

New Grade 9-1 GCSE Chemistry: AQA Revision Guide with Online Edition (https://www.cgpbooks.co.uk/School/books_gcse_science_new.books_gcse_science_aqa?range=new)

On-line resources:

http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science

Specialist equipment needed

Scientific Calculator

Ruler

Year 10 Chemistry

Topics studied:

Quantitative Chemistry

Chemists use quantitative analysis to determine the formulae of compounds and the equations for reactions. Given this information, analysts can then use quantitative methods to determine the purity of chemical samples and to monitor the yield from chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can be classified in various ways. Identifying different types of chemical reaction allows chemists to make sense of how different chemicals react together, to establish patterns and to make predictions about the behaviour of other chemicals. Chemical equations provide a means of representing chemical reactions and are a key way for chemists to communicate chemical ideas.

Chemical Changes

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organizing their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’.

Energy Changes

Energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic. These interactions between particles can produce heating or cooling effects that are used in a range of everyday applications. Some interactions between ions in an electrolyte result in the production of electricity. Cells and batteries use these chemical reactions to provide electricity. Electricity can also be used to decompose ionic substances and is a useful means of producing elements that are too expensive to extract any other way.

The rate and extent of chemical change

Chemical reactions can occur at vastly different rates. Whilst the reactivity of chemicals is a significant factor in how fast chemical reactions proceed, there are many variables that can be manipulated in order to speed them up or slow them down. Chemical reactions may also be reversible and therefore the effect of different variables needs to be established in order to identify how to maximise the yield of desired product. Understanding energy changes that accompany chemical reactions is important for this process. In industry, chemists and chemical engineers determine the effect of different variables on reaction rate and yield of product. Whilst there may be compromises to be made, they carry out optimisation processes to ensure that enough product is produced within a sufficient time, and in an energy-efficient way.

Skills that will be developed:

Working scientifically particularly the development of scientific thinking, experimental skills and strategies, analysis and evaluation and scientific vocabulary, quantities, units, symbols and nomenclature.

Mathematical skills will be developed such as arithmetic and numerical computation, handling data, algebra, graphs, geometry and trigonometry.

The use of apparatus and techniques will be developed through:

  • The development of investigative skills (devising and investigating testable questions, identifying and controlling variables, analysing, interpreting and evaluating data).
  • The development of practical skills such as using specialist equipment to take measurements, handling and manipulating equipment with confidence and fluency and recognising hazards and planning how to minimise risk.

Formal assessments (at the end of the course):

Paper 1 lasting one hour and forty five minutes. (100 marks)

Paper 2 lasting one hour and forty five minutes. (100 marks)

Exam board and specification:

AQA is the exam board

GCSE Chemistry (8462) is the specification

Extended tasks/Coursework/Controlled Assessment

Eight required practicals assessing the required apparatus and techniques.

Lists of texts:

AQA GCSE Chemistry Student Book by Lawrie Ryan (ISBN-13: 9780198359388)

AQA GCSE Chemistry Student Book by Ann Daniels (ISBN-13: 97800008158767)

AQA GCSE Chemistry Student Book by Richard Grime, Nora Henry (ISBN-13: 9781471851346)

New Grade 9-1 GCSE Chemistry for AQA: Student Book with Online Edition (CATB42)

New Grade 9-1 GCSE Chemistry: AQA Revision Guide with Online Edition (https://www.cgpbooks.co.uk/School/books_gcse_science_new.books_gcse_science_aqa?range=new)

On-line resources:

http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science

Specialist equipment needed

Scientific Calculator

Ruler

Year 11 Chemistry

Topics studied:

C2.4 Rates of reaction

Be able to speed up or slow down chemical reactions is important in everyday life and in industry. Changes in temperature, concentration of solution, gas pressure, surface area of solids and the presence of catalysts all affect the rates of reactions. Catalysts can help reduce the cost of some industrial processes.

C2.5 Exothermic and endothermic reactions

Chemical reactions involve energy transfers. Many chemical reactions involve the release of energy. For other chemical reactions to occur, energy must be supplied.

C2. 6 Acids, bases and salts

Soluble salts can be made from acids and insoluble salts can be made from solutions of ions. When acids and alkalis react the result is a neutralisation reaction.

C2.7 Electrolysis

Ionic compounds have many uses and can provide other substances. Electrolysis is used to produce alkalis and elements such as aluminium, chlorine and hydrogen. Oxidation-reduction reactions do not just involve oxygen.

C3.1 The periodic table.

The modern periodic table has been developed from work begun by Newlands and Mendeleev. There are trends in chemical properties within the periodic table linked to how easily the element gains or loses electrons.

C3.2 Water

The water we drink is not pure water because it contains dissolved substances. It should be safe to drink water that has been treated. This means that the water does not contain anything that could cause us harm. Some of the dissolved substances are beneficial to our health but some cause hard water.

C3.3 Calculating and explaining energy changes

Knowing the amount of energy involved in chemical reactions is useful so that resources are used efficiently and economically. It is possible to measure the amount of energy experimentally or to calculate it.

C3.4 Further analysis and quantitative chemistry

A range of chemical tests can be used for the detection and identification of elements and compounds. Titrations can be used to find the amounts of acid or alkali in a solution.

C3.5 The production of ammonia

In industrial processes, energy requirements and emissions need to be considered both for economic reasons and for sustainable development.

Skills that will be developed:

How Science Works will be developed by looking at key features such as:

  • The thinking behind the doing
  • Fundamental ideas
  • Observation as a stimulus to investigation
  • Designing an investigation
  • Making measurements
  • Presenting data
  • Using data to draw conclusions
  • Evaluation
  • Societal aspects of scientific evidence
  • Limitations of scientific evidence

Formal assessments (at the end of the course):

Unit 1: Chemistry 1 lasting one hour (100 UMS)

Unit 2: Chemistry 2 Paper 2 lasting one hour (100 UMS)

Unit 3: Chemistry 3 Paper 3 lasting one hour (100 UMS)

Unit 4: Controlled Assessment (100 UMS)

Exam board and specification:

AQA is the exam board

GCSE Chemistry (4402) is the specification

Extended tasks/Coursework/Controlled Assessment

Completion of an ISA

Lists of texts:

AQA Science GCSE Chemistry by Patrick Fullick (ISBN-9780748796441)

GCSE Chemistry for AQA: Student Book with Interactive Online Edition (CATB41)

GCSE Chemistry AQA Complete Revision & Practice    (CAS44) (https://www.cgpbooks.co.uk/School/books_gcse_science.books_gcse_science_aqa?range=old)

On-line resources:

http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science

Specialist equipment needed

Scientific Calculator

Ruler

Year 12-13 Chemistry (AQA): AS and A Level Year 1

Topics studied:

3.1 Physical Chemistry

3.1.1 Atomic structure

3.1.2 Amount of substance

3.1.3 Bonding

3.1.4 Energetics

3.1.5 Kinetics

3.1.6 Chemical equilibria and Le Chatelier’s principle

3.1.7 Oxidation, reduction and redox equations

3.2 Inorganic Chemistry

3.2.1 Periodicity

3.2.2 Group 2, the alkaline earth metals

3.2.3 Group 7(17), the halogens

3.3 Organic Chemistry

3.3.1 Introduction to organic chemistry

3.3.2 Alkanes

3.3.3 Halogenoalkanes

3.3.4 Alkenes

3.3.5 Alcohols

3.3.6 Organic analysis

Skills that will be developed:

Practical skills will be developed such as independent thinking, use and application of scientific methods and practices, numeracy and the application of mathematical concepts in a practical context, and instruments and equipment,

Mathematical skills will be developed such as arithmetic and numerical computation, handling data, algebra, graphs, geometry and trigonometry.

Competencies(CPAC) will be developed such as follows written procedures, applies investigative approaches and methods when using instruments and equipment, Safely uses a range of practical equipment and materials, makes and records observations and researches, references and reports.

Formal assessments: (at the end of the course):

Paper 1 + Paper 2

What’s assessed

Relevant Physical Chemistry topics (sections 3.1.1 to 3.1.4, 3.1.6 and 3.1.7

Inorganic Chemistry (sections 3.2.1 to 3.2.3)

Relevant practical skills

What’s assessed

Relevant Physical Chemistry topics (sections 3.1.2 to 3.1.6

Organic Chemistry (sections 3.3.1 to 3.3.6)

Relevant practical skills

How it’s assessed

Written exam 1 hour 30 minutes

80 marks

50% of the AS

How it’s assessed

Written exam 1 hour 30 minutes

80 marks

50% of the AS

Questions

65 marks of short and long answer questions

15 marks of multiple choice questions

Questions

65 marks of short and long answer questions

15 marks of multiple choice questions

 

Exam board and specification:

AQA is the exam board

AS and A-level Chemistry (AS 7404) is the specification

Extended tasks/Coursework/Controlled Assessment:

Required practical 1 – Make up a volumetric solution and carry out a simple acid-base titration.

Required practical 2 – Measurement of an enthalpy change

Required practical 3 – Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature

Required practical 4 – Carry out simple test-tube reactions

Required practical 5 – Distillation of a product from a reaction

Required practical 6 – Tests for alcohol, aldehyde, alkene and carboxylic acid

Lists of texts:

AQA Chemistry AS Year 1 Student Book

Authors: Ted Lister, Janet Renshaw

Publisher: Oxford University Press (including Nelson Thornes)

ISBN-13: 978-0-1983-5181-8

AQA A-level Chemistry Student Book

Authors: Ted Lister, Janet Renshaw

Publisher: Oxford University Press (including Nelson Thornes)

ISBN-13: 978-0-19-835182-5

AQA A-level Chemistry Year 1 Student Book

Authors: Alyn McFarland, Teresa Quigg, Nora Henry

Publisher: Hodder Education

ISBN-13: 978-1-4718-0767-1

AQA A-level Chemistry: Student Book 1

Authors: Lyn Nicholls

Publisher: Collins

ISBN-13: 978-0-00-759021-6

New A-Level Chemistry: AQA Year 1 & AS Complete Revision & Practice with Online Edition (CAR53) (https://www.cgpbooks.co.uk/School/books_a_level_chemistry_aqa)

On-line resources:

http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science/as-and-a-level/chemistry-7404-7405

Specialist equipment needed

Scientific Calculator

Ruler

Year 13: Chemistry (AQA) A-Level Year 2

Topics studied:

3.1 Physical Chemistry

3.1.8 Thermodynamics

3.1.9 Rate equations

3.1.10 Equilibrium constant Kp

3.1.11 Electrode potentials and electrochemical cells

3.1.12 Acids and bases

3.2 Inorganic Chemistry

3.2.4 Properties of period 3 elements and their oxides

3.2.5 Transition metals

3.2.6 Reactions of ions in aqueous solution

3.3 Organic Chemistry

3.3.7 Optical isomerism

3.3.8 Aldehydes and ketones

3.3.9 Carboxylic acids and esters

3.3.10 Aromatic chemistry

3.3.11 Amines

3.3.12 Polymers

3.3.13 Amino acids, proteins and DNA

3.3.14 Organic synthesis

3.3.15 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

3.3.16 Chromatography

Skills that will be developed:

Practical skills will be developed such as independent thinking, use and application of scientific methods and practices, numeracy and the application of mathematical concepts in a practical context, and instruments and equipment,

Mathematical skills will be developed such as arithmetic and numerical computation, handling data, algebra, graphs, geometry and trigonometry.

Competencies(CPAC) will be developed such as follows written procedures, applies investigative approaches and methods when using instruments and equipment, Safely uses a range of practical equipment and materials, makes and records observations and researches, references and reports.

Formal assessments: (at the end of the course):

Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3

What’s assessed

·         Relevant Physical chemistry topics (Sections 3.1.1 to 3.1.4, 3.1.6 and 3.1.8 and 3.1.10 to 3.1.12)

·         Inorganic chemistry (Section 3.2)

·         Relevant practical skills

What’s assessed

·         Relevant Physical chemistry topics (Sections 3.1.2 to  3.1.6 and 3.1.9)

·         Organic chemistry (Section 3.3)

·         Relevant practical skills

What’s assessed

·         Any content

·         Any practical skills

How it’s assessed

·         Written exam: 2 hours

·         105 marks

·         35% of the A-level

How it’s assessed

·         Written exam: 2 hours

·         105 marks

·         35% of the A-level

How it’s assessed

·         Written exam: 2 hours

·         90 marks

·         30% of the AS

Questions

105 marks of short and long answer questions

Questions

105 marks of short and long answer questions

Questions

40 marks of questions on practical techniques and data analysis

20 marks of questions testing across the specification

30 marks of multiple choice questions

 

Exam board and specification:

AQA is the exam board

AS and A-level Chemistry (7405) is the specification

Extended tasks/Coursework/Controlled Assessment:

Required practical 1 – Make up a volumetric solution and carry out a simple acid-base titration.

Required practical 2 – Measurement of an enthalpy change

Required practical 3 – Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature

Required practical 4 – Carry out simple test-tube reactions

Required practical 5 – Distillation of a product from a reaction

Required practical 6 – Tests for alcohol, aldehyde, alkene and carboxylic acid

Required practical 7a – Measuring the rate of reaction by an initial rate method

Required practical 7b – Measuring the rate of reaction by a continuous monitoring method

Required practical 8 – Measuring the EMF of an electrochemical cell

Required practical 9 – Investigate how pH changes when a weak acid reacts with a strong base and when a strong acid reacts with a weak base

Required practical 10a – Preparation of an organic solid and a test of its purity

Required practical 10b – Preparation of a pure organic liquid

Required practical 11 – Carry out simple test-tube reactions to identify transition metal ions in aqueous solution

Required practical 12 – Separation of species by thin-layer chromatography

Lists of texts:

AQA A-level Chemistry Student Book

Authors: Ted Lister, Janet Renshaw

Publisher: Oxford University Press (including Nelson Thornes)

ISBN-13: 978-0-19-835182-5

AQA A-level Chemistry Year 2 Student Book

Authors: Alyn McFarland, Teresa Quigg, Nora Henry

Publisher: Hodder Education

ISBN-13: 978-1-4718-0770-1

AQA A-level Chemistry: Student Book 2

Authors: Lynne Bayley, Andrew Clarke and Paolo Coppo

Publisher: Collins

ISBN-13: 978-0-00-759763-5

New A-Level Chemistry: AQA Year 2 Complete Revision & Practice with Online Edition (CAR62) (https://www.cgpbooks.co.uk/School/books_a_level_chemistry_aqa)

On-line resources:

http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/science/as-and-a-level/chemistry-7404-7405

Specialist equipment needed

Scientific Calculator

Ruler